Treatment of pulmonary embolism lowers its mortality, but it has to be modified in regard to its relevance and acceptable risk of bleeding. Patients with high-risk pulmonary embolism are indicated for thrombolytic treatment; on the other hand, this treatment is not indicated in patients with non-high-risk pulmonary embolism. These patients require anticoagulant therapy; unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparins or a direct inhibitor of a factor Xa fondaparinux may be used. Patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism comprise heterogeneous _category. Thrombolytic vs. anticoagulant therapy in these patients is still a matter of individual and careful consideration of thrombolysis benefits vs. risk of bleeding. If pulmonary hypertension endures after pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension must be excluded.