The clinical detection of neuropathy is not a difficult task. It is based on the recognition of the involvement of motor, sensory and autonomic nerve fibres. However, neuropathies represent a good-sized group of neurological disorders of a heterogeneous etiology. The etiological diagnosis, which is a pre-condition for proper treatment, requires a targeted history taking focus on a wide range of diseases, the onset and course of the neuropathic symptoms and assessment of the extent and distribution of the affected nerves. An accurate choice, utilization and evaluation of sufficiently sensitive and specific complementary examination techniques are concluded by the series of diagnostic operations, whose endpoint should be the most accurate and the most proper etiological diagnosis of the neuropathy.