Alexander Jurko, Marián Molnár, Alexander Jurko ml., Katarína Rush
Background: Pectus excavatum is a deformity of the chest that consists of backward displacement of the sternum and costal cartilages giving rise to a depression in the xiphosternal area. The occurence of pectus excavatum with congenital heart disease has been reported by several authors. Since the findings from auscultation, electrocardiography, and chest roentgenography in pectus excavatum may be suggestive of heart disease we have reviewed the features detectable with these techniques. Methods: Included in this study were 50 children with pectus excavatum seen at the pediatric clinic in Martin between 2008 and 2010. An electrocardiogram had been recorded in 44 children, and in 50 cases a chest roentgenograms was available for review. Results: Boys were more numerous than girls (50/5). 21 children had limited exercise tolerance. Systolic heart murmurs graded 2/6 or 3/6 were found in 19 cases (43 %) of the group. On the overal clinical picture we made a diagnosis of 3 cases of Marfan syndrome and in only one case Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. In 9 (20 %) children has been identified mitral valve prolapse with mitral insufficiency, in 8 children (17.7 %) mitral valve prolapse and in 5 children (11.1 %) mitral valve prolapse. The electrocardiographic findings in the precordial tracings the most striking features werťe abnormal QRS patterns from leads V1 and V6. Lead V1 gave a right ventricular conduction delay (rSŕ or rsŔ pattern) in 18 cases (41 %). Lead V 6 produced no q wave in 19 cases (43.2 %). S waves in V6 exceeded the normal limits in 11cases (25 %). In 11.4 percent of cases the R wave in V6 exceeded normal height. Abnormal findings tended to be most of roentgenogram´s a distinct leftward shift of the heart with displacement of the right heart border to or beyond the right border of the vertebral column was sees in 43 cases. In 20 patients the descending aorta was was shifted left-ward. Abnormal pulmonary findings related to pectus excavatum were exposed right hilus with prominent visualization of the right pulmonary artery and its branches and increased density of the right paracardiac lung field in 24 cases. 3 patients had thoracic scoliosis. Conclusion: Complete cardiologic investigation (history, physical examination, electrocardiography, roentgenography) and by echocardiography exclude or confirm cardiac defects in children with pectus excavatum.