Ján Richnavský, Erik Dosedla, Lenka Priškinová, Štefan Lukačín
Leiomyomas are the most common female reproductive tract tumors. They are probably of unicellular origin, and have more histological varied subtypes. The incidence of fibroids peaks in the fifth decade of age and they are more common in African American women. The predisposition factors as race, age, parity, obesity, hormonal state, family history and heredity are associated with increased risk of fibroids. Cytogenetic abnormalities are found in up to 40 - 50 % of fibroid specimens. Their growth rate is influenced by estrogens and progesterone. The key regulators of cell proliferation, angiogenesis and the process of apoptosis are growth factors. There are a lot of research questions waiting to be answered on the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Evaluation usually begins with a pelvic examination and diagnostic imaging to determine both the size and location of the fibroids within the uterus.