Martina Ondrušová1,2, Dalibor Ondruš3
Backgrounds: The Slovak Republic (SR) is for many years among the countries with the highest global incidence of kidney cancer. Character of mortality from kidney cancers has been changed in the last years. This study analysed the incidence and resulting mortality and the possible reasons for any differences discovered in the SR in correlation with other countries. Material and Methods: Analyses of national data take into account the period 1968-2006. The trends have been extracted using linear regression model and are presented with corresponding 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI) and p-value with null hypothesis being constant with time. Predictions of incidence and prevalence for the year 2010 have been calculated and the clinical stages of the disease were presented. Results: In 1980-1994, the average increase of standardized incidence of kidney cancer in males in the SR represented 0.48/100 000 (95 % CI = 0.41 - 0.55; p < 0.0001), however, in 1994-2006 the trends slowed down to 0.21/100 000 (95 % CI = 0.037 - 0.382; p = 0.02). In females, the trends in 1980-1994 were 0.24/100 000 (95 % CI = 0.19 - 0.28; p < 0.0001) and 0.13/100 000 in 1994-2006 (95 % CI = 0.04 - 0.22; p = 0.007). Mortality culminates as well as incidence in about the year 1994, later the stabilization of mortality was reported in both sexes. In the SR just slight changes in the percentage of kidney cancer clinical stages in 2000-2006 have been recorded. Conclusion: The increase of total kidney cancer incidence is not explained only by the growth of asymptomatic localized tumours, but it likely reflects actual growth of new cases of the disease. The assumed cause of the mortality stabilization and slowdown of the incidence growth after its previous culmination in 1994 is the decline of smoking and obesity prevalence in the last decades in men, although this fact does not reflect situation in women.