Vladimíra Sobolová, Vincent Nagy
The article offers information about new approaches in the diagnosis and monitoring of bladder cancer by molecular and fluorescence analysis methods. Listed methods are used for detection of micro RNA, hypoxia-induced factor and fluorescence urine examination. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a single stranded small non-coding RNA consisting of 19-25 nucleotides in length. Its role is to participate in the regulation of gene expression, where it plays the role of the silencer. Expression of regulation is based on base pairing with a gene for transcription of a target protein that results in a decrease in regulation or repression of the target gene. Hypoxia-induced factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor sensitive to the oxygen concentration in the cell environment. Research has confirmed the association of HIF-1a with an angiogenesis profile. Diagnostic monitoring of urine samples by fluorescence analysis methods allows detection of changes in fluorescence spectrum during disease as well as in response to therapy. These methods have the potential to improve diagnostic capture and to facilitate follow-up of patients.