Daniela Hučková, Katarína Kollárová
Persistent infection with oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The use of high risk HPV testing as an adjunct to cervical cytology in population-based screening programs is currently based on DNA hybridization and PCR assays. Genotypization techniques are required to distinguish between persistent infections with the same high risk genotype and those where the genotype had changed between visits. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most commonly found agents of congenital infections. Primary maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with risk of symptomatic CMV diseases. The most definitive diagnosis of primary infection in a pregnant woman is by detection seroconversion of CMV-specific IgG. Prenatal diagnosis of CMV congenital infection relies on virus isolation or CMV DNA detection in amniotic fluid. An accurate diagnostic method such as PCR is highly advisable for management of congenital infection in newborns during the first three weeks of life. For interpretation it can be combined with the results of serological testing.