Atrial fibrillation is the commonest arrhythmia met in clinical practice. It accounts for 1/3 of all hospitalizations for rhythm disorders (1). Though it is not life threatening disease in presence of AF mortality and morbidity is increased twice (2). Discontent with medicamentous treatment of supraventricular arrhythmias was the main cause of increasing interest of other ways of treatment. This led mostly in 1980-1990 to development of various catheter and surgical techniques. However, success of catheter ablation treatment of supraventricular arrhythmias, e.g Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, AV nodal reentry tachycardia and most forms of atrial flutter, was the proof of lost interest of present cardiosurgery of their treatment. Exception is atrial fibrilation as an associated diesease in other basic heart disease. The cause is continuously increasing average age of patients who undergo cardiosurgical intervention. Successfully performed surgical treatment increases survival rate of patients, quality of their lives, decreases occurrence of NCMP, eliminates need of coagulation therapy and resulting complications. Decreaase of invasivity and risk of surgical procedures, progress in development of ablation equipment guaranteeing transmurality and folowing success makes this treatment more attractive and at the same time in provides possibilities of miniivasive procedures in patients, who do nor have other cardial disease but in whom different ways of treatment failed.