Z. LAUČEKOVÁ, I. ŠVECOVÁ, P. KASAJOVÁ, A. GONDOVÁ, K. LADIVEROVÁ, K. BISKUPSKÁ BOĎOVÁ, K. DÓKUŠ, P. ŽÚBOR, J. DANKO
Orofacial clefts are the most common congenital malformation of the face and neck.
Cleft lip and palate patients suffer from various health complications - nutrition, respiratory,
hearing and speech disorders, dentition disorders, chewing and eating complications
and deformities of the face and nose. The aetiology of the malformation
is multifactorial and includes both endogenous and exogenous factors. On average,
cleft lip affects 1 in 1,000 live births, while cleft palate 1 in 2000 live births. The differences
in incidence are also within sexes. Clefts can occur alone, along with a defect of
other organs or as a part of several congenital syndromes. Ultrasonographic examination
plays the most important role in screening and diagnosis of cleft lip and palate.
Currently, the standard examination is carried out around the 20th to 22nd week
of gestation, but if the skills and equipment allow otherwise, this malformation can
be detected even earlier. A recent study provides a new screening marker - maxillary
gap. Its presence and size in the 11th-13th weeks of gestation increase the detection
rate of cleft lip and palate, especially in isolated cases.