Pavol Jarčuška, Pavol Kristian
Gastrointestinal infections belong to the three most common community acquired infections. The highest prevalence is recorded in infections due to Salmonella spp., which are transmitted mainly by undercooked meats, by eggs and by milk. The severe course of infection is described in immunocompromised and in elderly patients. The other bacterial pathogens are Shigella sp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter sp. Typical clinical presentation of enteritis caused by E.coli reached diarrhea in childhood. Haemorrhagic-uraemic syndrome is described in strains with shigatoxin expression. Travellers diarrhea is well known recognized. Viral enteritis due to rotaviruses and Norwalk viruses are typical in childhood. Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis are the most common parasites in tropes and subtropes. In our climatic conditions protozoal infections belong to imported infections, rarely are described in patients with poor hygienic standard. Diagnostic measurements involved rectal swab, microscopic investigation of stool and rapid latex aglutination tests. The basic principles of therapy are replacement of fluids and minerals – (potassium and natrium) and diet. Antibiotic therapy is useful only in immunocompromised patients with systemic in salmonellosis, in shigellosis, in campylobacteriosis, in serious infections due to E.coli and in patients with parasitic infections.