Peptic ulcer disease is a chronic peptic disease of the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum accompanying with the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection (HP). In the past it was regarded as the lifelong chronic disease with frequent recurrence afflicting 10 % of population. After discovery of etiopathogenesis of HP and targeting retreatment of the infection, the prevalence of PUD has significantly decreased. Consistent eradication of HP infection has resulted in decreasing recurrences and significant decrease of complications, primarily acute bleeding. Despite remarkable progress of knowledge and intensive research of molecular genetic characteristics of HP, as well as pathogenetic processes, the causes of various clinical manifestations of HP have not been explained so far. We are convinced that HP infection in the patient with ulcer disease must be eradicated. Problem is gradually growing resistance of this old bur viable bacteria.