Vladimír Bartoš, Juraj Váňa, Roman Mráz
Background: Primary retroperitoneal tumours are quite rare, but histogenetically very different nosological entities. They are usually of mesenchymal origin, of which a majority represent malignant lesions.
Case report: The authors describe a case report of a 47-year old woman, who was diagnosed to have a solid-cystic retroperitoneal tumour mass at the lower third of the right kidney. It histologically consisted of hypercellular smooth muscle tissue containing a higher number of blood vessels. The tumour cells exhibited no atypia, low proliferative activity and only occasional mitotic figures. Immunohistochemically, the smooth muscle tumour component was positive for α-SMA, caldesmon, desmin, progesterone and oestrogen receptor. The findings corresponded with a vascular leiomyoma (angioleiomyoma), probably of a primary retroperitoneal origin. Additionally, it was found, that the patient had undergone a hysterectomy due to uterus myomatosus in the past.
Conclusion: In routine clinicopathological practice, primary retroperitoneal leiomyoma is a rare tumour entity. As it has also been demonstrated in our paper, the tumour predominantly occurs in middle-aged women, and it is often associated with the uterine leiomyomas. These clinical indicators may be helpful in the preoperative differential diagnostic approach. Definitive diagnosis can be made only by microscopic examination focused on the exclusion of malignancy in tumours arising from this body site.