Increasing trend in the incidence of kidney diseases, including chronic renal insufficiency, is caused by demografic factors and higher frequency of risk factors in a population. Remarkable is an increase in diabetic nephropathy due to boom of diabetes mellitus. The renal replacement therapy is a continuation of predialysis care and is an important factor in maintaining good physical, mental and social dimensions of quality of life. Polymorbidity is a major limitation in succesful treatment. The main cause of mortality in dialysis population is cardiovascular morbidity. Diabetics, elderly and cardiacs poorly tolerate hemodialysis treatment, therefore peritoneal dialysis is more appropriate for them.