Vladimír Uličiansky, Zbynek Schroner
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Type 2 DM has a strong genetic component. The disease is polygenic and multifactorial since in addition to genetic susceptibility, enviromental factors (obesity, nutrition and physical activity) modulate the phenotype. In the project „Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Slovakia“ Mokan et al. confirmed 7.0 % prevalence of diabetes mellitus, including 5.3 % of known DM, 1.2 % of new DM according to ADA criteria and 0.5 % of additional new cases of DM after oGTT in respondents with impaired fasting glucose. The plan of International Diabetes Federation (IDF) on Type 2 DM prevention is based on controlling modifiable risk factors and can be divided in two target groups: people at high risk of developing Type 2 DM and the entire population.The IDF proposes a three-step plan for the prevention: 1. indentification of those who may be at higher risk (type 2 diabetes risk assessment form, fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test), 2. measurement of risk and 3. intervention to prevent the development of Type 2 DM (lifestyle changes, weight, physical activity, pharmacological intervention). Plan IDF is very similar to the recommendations of The American Diabetes Association and The Slovakian Diabetes Society.