Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disease characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia, which may be caused due to increased platelet destruction mediated by auto antibodies that target several platelet glycoproteins (GPIIb/ IIIa and GP Ib/IX). ITP pathogenesis is multifactorial. In thrombocytopenia, in addition to destruction of platelets, there is also involved a disorder maturation of megacaryocytes, decreased production of megacaryocytes and platelets, megacaryocytes inadequate response to a reduction in peripheral blood platelets and the relative lack of endogenous trombopoietin (TPO). Diagnosis of ITP is based primarily on the exclusion of other causes of thrombocytopenia and includes anamnesis, clinical features, physical and laboratory examinations. The main goal of treatment is to ensure such an amount of platelets which will prevent serious bleeding. Treatment strategy is aimed at suppression of antibody production, to eliminate points of platelets termination and stimulate the platelet production.