Within last decades there has been a dramatic increase of obesity in adulthood and childhood. At the same time there has been observed an increase of diabetes mellitus type 2. Within 20 years there has been more than the double increase of this serious disease. The reason of premature death of patients affected by diabetes is mainly the increase of cardiovascular diseases. The risk of death from cardiovascular complications is so high that diabetes mellitus is considered to be a risk equivalent of a manifest atherosclerotic disease to which the fact that majority of diabetics suffers from dyslipoproteinemia, obesity and arterial hypertension contributes to a large extent. It was showed that an early complex, intensive - individualized treatment distinctly improves the prognosis in the sense of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Scientifically based management of the patient with diabetes mellitus type 2: 1. puts emphasis on the treatment without increase of the patient’s weight 2. respects the results from clinical studies which showed that at the decision on the intensity of hypoglycaemic treatment it is necessary to take into consideration the duration of diabetes and overall cardiovascular risk 3. is complex regarding the treatment of atherosclerotic risk factors.