Pavol Joppa, Pavol Pobeha, Ružena Tkáčová
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized beside its pulmonary involvement also by the presence of systemic inflammation, that is directly associated with its systemic effects – cachexia and skeletal muscle dysfunction, and increases the risk of comorbidities including the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Protein catabolism within skeletal muscles is a hallmark of COPD-related cachexia, leading to consequences such as weight loss and reduction of the amount of lean (fat-free) mass. Main treatment options for cachexia include nutritional support together with rehabilitation. Metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity contribute to the extent of systemic inflammation in patients with COPD enhancing the progression of the atherosclerotic process, and thus increase the overall risk of type 2 diabetes and fatal cardiovascular events.
Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systemic effects, comorbidities, cachexia, metabolic syndrome