Janka Božíková, Peter Bánovčin, Michal Demeter, Rudolf Hyrdel
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most frequent functional disease of the digestive tract with prevalence 5 - 22 % in common population. Until now the aetiology of the disease has not been discovered. In pathogenesis psychosocial factors, overcome infection, motility disorders, visceral hypersensitivity play an important role, the question of neurotransmitter and bowel bacteria, disorder of bowel permeability and the role of genetics is opened. IBS typically manifests by abdominal discomfort related to defaecation, or changes in defaecation in the sense of the frequency or stool consistence. As at present there is not any diagnostic biological marker for this disease, the diagnosis is based on symptoms, but objectification of various IBS symptomatology is one of the most difficult diagnostic problems in gastroenterology. Nowadays the direct diagnostics is recommended on the basis of clinical trials, using Roma III criteria and missing alarming symptoms. However, presence of any alarming symptoms is the reason for a complex diagnostic process. The treatment is symptomatic, its complexity is important and in more serious forms also multidisciplinary approach. In the long-term therapeutical process the most important is a positive relation between a doctor and a patient and patient‘s education.
Key word: functional diseases, syndrome of irritable bowel, direct diagnostics, symptomatic treatment