For new cases of oesophageal carcinoma have increased all over the world in the last decade , precanceroses of the gullet attract the attention of physicians. The greatest emphasis is put on the importance of oesophageal reflux and Barret`s oesophagus. Oesophageal reflux is referred to as the disease of the 21st century. The study reports about the great need of dispensation of patients with Barrett`s oesophagus that is the most frequent oesophageal precancerosis with two-fold higher occurrence of adenocarcinoma in the last ten years. However, further precanceroses are mentioned in the article - achalasia, epitheliosclerosis and tylosis, some benign tumours of the oesophagus and strictures of the gullet after erosion.