Milan Kuchta, Miloš Mikuš
In the overview paper the authors present actual scientific information on the human microbiome from the view of its settlement, importance of its structure and the course of organism colonisation since the early age. There is new information on presence of namely non -cultivatable microorganisms in the place of a foetus and child, which were considered sterile until now, e.g. human milk, meconium or amniotic fluid. It also points out to other confirmation of breastfeeding importance for the development of the immune system, digestive tract, obesity prevention and optimal development of the CNS. Information on factors modulating physiological colonization and microbiome development as a way of the labour, birth weight, breastfeeding and its length, antibiotic therapy of an infant’s mother, social factors, community development or the way of the nutrition is published. Subsequently the possibilities of this knowledge utilisation in prevention and potential treatment at the utilisation of specific probiotics are stated.