Emil Martinka, Egon Kurča, Ondrej Bencúr
The complication known as diabetic foot syndrome (or simply „diabetic foot“) is defined by WHO as the affliction of foot tissues distally from the ankle. This complication afflicts in its advanced stage 5 - 15 % of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Advanced stages of DF are complicated by osteomyelitis or gangrene in 2,2 - 4 % of patients with DM. This can lead to tissue necrosis even amputation of the leg but also to fast spread of infection and to risk of life threatening septic reaction. Diabetic leg is at present the most frequent cause of non tramatic amputations on the leg that can be reduced to the half by active risk cases finding, education and an early and proper treatment. Prevention is fundamental for improving the situation. The key role is played by education. Diagnostics should be „investigative“, i.e. target and active search of risk factors of diabetic foot to start the treatment at an early stage of the disease. The most importatnt risk factors are diabetic polyneuropathy, ischaemia of lower limbs and acquired or inborn deformities and foot deformities. Feet should be always examined as well as the patient`s shoes. After evaluation of the finding the patient is stratified and the individual plan of visits and treatment is determined. Health care of diabetic foot requires interdisciplinary and well organized cooperation of the diabetologist and neurologist, vasal surgeon and orthoprotetist.