Martina Dobríková, Alena Stančáková, Martin Javorský, Ivan Tkáč
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a complex illness where the role of more genes is very important. Effect of particular genes is not that big but their mutual interaction together with environmental factors can increase the risk of development of DM2. Results of metanalyses monitoring the association of polymorphisms of candidate genes with the risk of development of diabetes show 1.1 to 1.8 -fold increase of the risk in carriers of risk aleles of particular polymorphisms. Pathogenetically they are genes affecting mostly insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity. The strongest association of genes affecting insulin secretion were detected with a gene coding transcription factor 7 (TCF7L2) and genes coding sulphonylures receptor (KCNJ11, ABCC8).Genes affecting insulin sensitivity were associated with a gene PPARG coding peroxizome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ). The aim of research of DM2 genetic background is to understand genetic and molecular aetiology of this frequent metabolic disease that result may in more efficient treatment, prevention, prediction of future complications and prognosis.