The results of clinical studies and their metaanalyses have dynamically changed some clinical approaches. The number of diabetic patients in Slovakia turned 300,000 in 2006. Early intervention and prevention together with delayed progression of diabetes mellitus have both clinical and economic importance. Therapeutic targets of diabetes emphasize reducing chronic diabetes-related complications. The interim results from the ACCORD and ADVANCE trials bring new findings with respect to the intensive glycaemic control. The major therapeutic target for hyperglycaemia management in type 2 diabetes mellitus is to achieve target values for fasting glycaemia, postprandial glycaemia and HbA1c levels as safely as possible without hypoglycaemia. Therapeutic range of medication affecting hyperglycaemia has markedly increased. New drugs introduce not only new approaches but also new issues and they contribute to the algorithm modification of type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment.