Milan Nikš, Dušan Krkoška
Purpose of review: To provide an overview of the most clinically important resistance mechanisms including their incidence, epidemiology and possible therapeutic options. Findings: International studies published during last years and surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Slovakia confirms continuous increase in frequencies of significant resistance mechanisms as MRSA or beta-lacamases AmpC and ESBL. Also carbapenemases, until now restricted in Slovakia to metallobetalactamese enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, seem to spread soon to enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp.. Lacking new effective drugs, recently updated rules for selection of current antimicrobials for treatment of new resistant strains are reviewed in detail. Summary: Multiresistance remains of a great concern and the lack of new therapeutic options emphasizes the importance of optimizing our use of current antimicrobials and promoting strict adherence to established infection control practices.