VEGETARIAN DIET AND OSTEOPOROSIS – I I. PROTEINS AND MINERALS
Vegetarian diet is according to a high intake of vitamins, antioxidants, fiber and unsaturated fatty acids and some minerals, associated with multiple-beneficiary health effects associated with the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity etc. However, it is also important to note that there are some shortcomings of this method of nutrition. It is a deficiency of vitamin B12, vitamin D, iron and zinc, but also the lack of animal proteins and calcium, which may be reflected negatively in bone density. There were published several views on the relationship between protein and calcium intake and bone density and fracture risk. Majority of authors would agree that bone density significantly positively correlates with the intake of proteins and calcium. It is shown up more strongly in strict vegetarians as in those who include milk and milky products to their diet. The intake of proteins and minerals varies in different types of vegetarianism and therefore the impact of vegetarian food on the origin and development of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures should be assessed on the basis of belonging to a particular method of nutrient intake. Sufficiently varied diet of ovo-lactovegetarians and semivegetarians can provide enough proteins and minerals and does not represent a more serious risk of the origin and development of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Vegetarianism is not suitable for high-risk groups because a strict form of vegetarianism may cause malnutrition, which may have negative effects on bone mass building.
Keywords: osteoporosis, vegetarian diet, proteins, minerals