Atrial fibrillation is the most commonly sustaining cardiac arrhythmia. Objectives in the treatment and management of atrial fibrillation are to identify and treat associated or cause factors, which may influence the patient’s prognosis; it is necessary to decide on rate or rhythm control and to prevent thromboembolism. Antiarrhythmic drugs are still main therapeutic tool for therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation. Propafenone is a classical representative of this group with a long tradition in clinical cardiology and arrythmology. The effectiveness, safety and tolerability of propafenone are high for conversion of paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation to a stable sinus rhythm after successful cardioversion. An alternative treatment of its use is a so-called “pill-in the pocket”. This review article presents compilation of known, but predominantly the newest data of the evidence- based medicine concerning long-term morbidity and mortality benefit of a continuous propafenone treatment in current clinical arythmology.