Anaemia in the elderly is a common problem. Owing the absence of a uniform definition of anaemia in this age the reported prevalence has wide variability. In the aetiology the third is attributed to „nutrient“ deficiencies (iron, vitamin B12), 20 % of chronic inflammation, 8 % to renal insufficiency alone, and the third is „unexplained“. The anaemia often has multiple causes and is combined with other diseases. Diagnostic and therapeutical algorithms are similar to those for anaemia found in any adult patient. Even relatively mild anaemia has a negative impact on the functional status of the patient. Therefore, prevention and treatment of anaemia in the elderly plays an important role in keeping the patient in a good mental and physical condition.