Zuzana Rennerová, Zuzana Abaffyová, Miloš Jeseňák
Food allergy is defined as abnormal immunological response to food. In contrast food intolerance is caused by non-immunological mechanisms. Symptoms of food intolerance are similar to food allergy. Food-induced allergic reactions include symptoms of skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Reactions can vary from middle to severe; the most serious reaction is anaphylaxis. Diagnosis of food allergy is complicated. Detailed medical history, skin prick test, atopy patch test, specific IgE measurement and other additional methods are involved. In many cases for food allergy confirmation it is necessary to perform a food challenge test. Double blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is considered as a gold standard in food allergy diagnosis. Currently, treatment of food allergy consists of strict avoidance of the trigger and patient’s education in symptom´s recognition and treatment (adrenalin) after accidental allergen ingestion.