Adriena Sakalová , Tomáš Lipšic, Viera Fábryová, Tatiana Hammerová
Background: Statistical data on the world-wide increase in the number of patients suffering from haemolytic anaemias
(especially haemoglobinopathies) are the reason why we should deal with these issues more intensively also here in
Slovakia. According to the epidemiological research, the disease-carrying of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
enzyme deficiency is estimated in 400 million and disease carrying of haemoglobinopathies of beta-thalassaemia type
in 240 million patients in the world. Disease-carrying of hereditary enzymopathies is sporadic. The risk of toxic influence
of outer environment on blood haemopoiesis and present world-wide immigration crisis increases the incidence of
haemolytic anaemias and risks of sudden life-threatening haemolytic syndromes.
Patients and methods: In the group of carriers of inborn erythrocyte disorders (membranopathies, haemoglobinopathies,
enzymopathies) in continuing health care since 1976 at the Clinic of Haematology and Transfusiology in
Bratislava we detected the diagnosis according to a clinical picture and screening laboratory diagnostics. In the group
of enzymopathies (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase – G6PD, pyruvate kinase - PK and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase
– GPI) we completed the diagnosis with biochemical-kinetic analysis as circumstances allowed. After a long monitoring
we provide a retrospective information on overall survival of patients with inborn enzyme erythrocyte disorder,
which outwardly most frequently manifest as non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia.
Results: We provide data from the literature, which we completed with own long-term experience. In our group of inborn
haemolytic anaemias we found: membranopathies in 55 %, haemoglobinopathies in 30 % and enzymopathies in
10.5 % of patients and 4.5 % other anaemias. We introduce probands with double heterozygous disease-carrying and
severe non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia since the birth: one patient with the Beverly Hill variant of G6PD deficiency
had zero enzyme activity, 25 patients had a medium decrease in G6PD activity (according to WHO classification class II
-III), 14 patients had various PK deficiency (in one case with zero activity) and 3 were GPI deficiency carriers. In the majority
of patients a long-term survival over 40 years has been found. Our experience we completed with the presentation
of case studies, a discussion and submission of suggestions for improvements in present diagnostics, treatment
and prognosis in our conditions.