Michal Bernadič, Juraj Pechan
Rectal and colon carcinomas are the third most frequent tumour disease all over the world. The surgical resection is a basic pillar of the colorectal carcinoma treatment. Principles and technique of a surgical treatment have not changed significantly recently; the surgical treatment is the only potentially curative method. In the interdisciplinary cooperation it is possible to reach relatively promising results despite the severity of the disease. The aim of the surgical solution of colic type of carcinoma is a wide resection of an affected intestinal segment together with removal of the relevant lymphatic drainage. The extent of an intestine resection is determined by a vascularisation and distribution of regional lymphatic drainage. The resection has to incorporate the affected intestinal segment and at least 5 cm of the healthy tissue in oral and aboral direction; it is sometimes inevitable to resect a bigger segment due to of obligatory ligation of the arterial supply. The surgical treatment is the only potentially curative therapy. But it itself is not able to provide an adequate survival in patients with colorectal carcinoma. The worldwide effort to create centres and multidisciplinary approaches, effort to individualize treatment and its „tailoring“ for a particular patient brings success, which is supported by several studies. In the effort to provide an adequate care for patients by a colorectal surgeon the radical resections, adequate patient’ choice of adjuvance, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, thorough imaging examination or just surgeon’s experience is not sufficient. The knowledge of genetic aspects of the disease penetrates into the surgical practice. The contribution of the surgical treatment is the oncological radical resection with the subsequent correct sphincters’ function, without limitation of sexual and urological functions.