Recent research in the field of natriuretic hormones led in last years to isolation and identification of the family of „natriuretic peptides“. Clinicaly best reconsider are atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Both hormones (mainly BNP) are sensitive markers of the left ventricular function and prognostic markers in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Third member of the peptide family – CNP, acts predominantly as paracrine hormone and has expressive antiproliferative effect. It probably has a great importance in the patophysiology of atherosclerosis. Last member of the family: D-type of natriuretic peptide (DNP) seems to play a role in the pathogensis of edematous disorders. The renal natriuretic peptide (urodilatin) is effective in the treatment of congestive heart failure and acute renal failure. Clinical importance of other peptides (guanylin and uroguanylin) needs further evaluation.