Chemotherapy is an important part of multimodal antitumoral therapy that uses demonstrable effective combinations of cytostatics with various effect mechanism. Molecularly targeted therapy is a new procedure. Chemosensitive neoplasms (haemathological, germinative) are curable mainly at the early stages according to TNM classification. In others the palliative effect with prolonged survival and improved quality of life is evident. Regularly occuring toxicity for healthy tissues as myelosuppresion, late development of congestive heart disease and development of secondary leukaemias are limiting factors. Indicated chemotherapy must be preceded by thorough diagnostics and stratification of disease, evaluation of prognostic factors, comorbidity and general condition of the patient with following individualisation of proved therapeutic regimes in the hands of experienced medical oncologists.