Chronic cough (ChC) is a complex syndrome induced by pulmonary and extrapulmonary causes. It can negatively influence quality of life of the patients and for the doctor it can be difficult diagnostic and/or therapeutic problem. Each ChC is induced by one, but more often by multiple causes simultaneously. Some of them are easy to detect, but for detection of others is necessary to use special diagnostic protocol. To the latter belong these coming from upper airway, gastro-intestinal tract, heart and other organs innervated by n. vagus. ChC can be a diagnostic problem even in some pathological processes localized in the airway and lung. The presented data provide the reader with essential information related to causes of ChC and point to diagnostic methods according anatomic diagnostic protocol by which these causes can be detected.