The risk of mental disorder during the first 3 month after delivery is much higher than it is in other population of women. Depression is the most frequent clinical picture of post-partum period. A specific etiological connection between delivery, puerperium, and depression has not been demonstrated. Dramatic changes in hormones and the abnormalities of neuroendocrine axes and neurotransmitter systems are a matter of debate. The aim of this article is to inform other specialists (gynecologists and obstetricians) who are confronted in their clinical practice with outpatients suffering from mental illness about some psychiatric problems.