Ján Podoba, Peter Hnilica
Nodular goitre at present times does not originate as a consequence of adaptive mechanisms to iodine deficiency any more. It is caused by endogenous factors. In the pathogenesis of sporadic nodular goitre take place genetic influences, constitutive heterogeneity of normal follicular cells, endogenous errors of intracellular mechanisms controlling growth and proliferation and local growth factors. Current nodular goitres are mostly real neoplasms, approximately 10 % of them are malignant. Basic question which should be resolved by the clinician is the question of malignancy. A consistent differential diagnostics of each nodular goitre is therefore necessary. After physical and ultrasonographical examination the decisive role in differential diagnostics plays fine needle aspiration cytodiagnostics.