Amylin (islet amyloid polypeptide) is a peptide produced by pancreatic β-cells and released to the circulation together with insulin in response to food intake. Amylin is a neuroendocrine hormone acting mainly via area postrema. Amylin exerts fast and short lasting decrease in food intake, supresses postprandial glucagon and pancreatic enzymes secretion, decreases the rate of gastric emptying and gastric acid production. Thus amylin effectively regulates postprandial surge of glucose and other nutrients to the circulation. Amylin appears to be inevitable complementary factor to insulin, both acting simultaneously. In diabetics with impaired β-cell function secretion of both insulin and amylin are affected with serious consequencies for adequate compensation of diabetes. These facts have important clinical impact and a synthetic human amylin analogue was introduced to the treatment of specific cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.